Depression and the Elderly

Depression can be an issue for anyone, but the elderly amongst us are especially vulnerable. When you think about it, the reasons are pretty simple. Part of the happiness we derive from life comes from good physical health and sharp cognitive abilities. Both of these decline with age, making even the basics of regular life increasingly challenging. That often leads to depression and a sense of hopelessness that makes the sadness even acuter.

Here are some of the reasons why people become depressed in their golden years:

“I’m Worthless”

People who were very productive and successful while young and healthy can find it especially difficult to cope with the declines that naturally come with aging. No longer possessing the feelings of accomplishment that provided them with their drive, these individuals soon begin to feel that they no longer have any value.

“I’m Alone”

Seniors often find it difficult to get around easily due to physical complaints. That means they tend to spend more time alone away from family and friends. This isolation can lead to sadness and considerable loneliness. Also, some people outlive those close to them, increasing that sense of being on their own forever.

“I No Longer Have Hope”

When faced with many new physical and/or cognitive challenges, seniors can find it tough to remember the good times in life. That makes them more likely to feel that all of these years of victory and struggle have been for naught.

“I Have No More Enjoyment in Life”

If you find it challenging to do the things that bring you pleasure, you will be less inclined to try doing them. While they may seem inconsequential, many of the joys we get from life come from friendly interactions, hobbies, and quiet, contemplative moments. Without them, life can seem rather empty and not worth living.

Here is an informative video on the subject:

Magnetron Sputter – What Is It?

techThe magnetron sputtering has become the most significant technology for the deposition of thin films since 1974. It is mostly needed by all industrial branches for improvement of their existing products. Magnetron is an electron tube for generating microwaves with the flow of electrons controlled by an outer magnetic field. While sputtering is a process by which the particles are ejected from a compact target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles particularly the gas ions in the laboratory.

Only professionals can accomplish and develop this kind of technology. Regarding magnetron sputtering – what is it? This is a technique of the physical vapor deposition coating. It is used to deposit thin films of materials such as ceramics, plastics and metals onto other surfaces. The magnetron sputtering is widely used process in commercial and scientific applications like improving the corrosion resistance properties of magnesium alloys and steel. The process is carried out by a low-pressure environment. To concentrate high-energy ions onto the coating material in order to eject the atoms, it is used by magnetic field.

The existence of this products is a great way to improve each of the company service for their clients. In this article you will know how to use the magnetron sputter system. The magnetron sputter system is use with DC or RF. The goal is to increase ionization of Ar. This is because the higher sputter rates at lower Ar pressures (down to 0.5 mTorr) that means, fewer gas collisions and more line of sight. It also increases probability of electrons striking Ar that also results to increase electron path length and can be use electric and magnetic fields. The most common configuration is crossed electric and magnetic fields. You may want to set the magnets (200 Gauss) behind target. It will trap electrons near cathode that produce more ionization near cathods (10x) and fewer electrons reach substrate (less heating).

New Technology Innovations

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There are constantly new innovations being created – that’s the beauty of this world. No matter where you are, people around you are coming up with brilliant ideas that are being produced and manufactured into things we can use or things that can help us. New innovations is what keeps us going, what keeps the world moving forward.

It’s important to encourage innovations because bright minded people will push their limits to create and design new products and technologies. New technologies continuously helps productivity and efficiency. It can take the place of humans for many aspects of work. Increasing innovation pushes our species into the future of technology.

Ashes of the Singularity: AMD and Nvidia Finally Work Together In DirectX 12

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) has announced a collaboration with Oxide Games and Stardock to bring the very best DirectX 12 performance to Ashes of the Singularity, a massive real-time strategy game built with inspirations from Total Annihilation and one of the first to take advantage of Microsoft’s latest API. The goal of Ashes of the Singularity is to depict real-time wars. Thousands or even tens of thousands of 3D objects could appear on screen in such a game.

Until now, strategy games had to have a real limit on the number of units that could be on the screen at once. To get over this limit, Oxide Games created its Nitrous Engine to take advantage of the DirectX 12 graphics software, which in turn can fully exploit the graphics hardware and 64-bit multicore central processing units (CPUs) in gamer PCs. One of the most exciting parts of Microsoft’s DirectX 12 is the ability to pair graphics cards of varying generations, performance, or even manufacturers together in a single PC, to pool their resources and thus make games and applications run better.

The latest beta version of Stardock’s real-time strategy game Ashes of the Singularity includes full support for EMA (Explicit Multi Adaptor), meaning that for the first time we can just what kind of a performance boost we can get by doing the previously unthinkable and sticking an AMD and Nvidia card into the same PC. Unlike AMD’s CrossFire and Nvidia’s SLI technologies, which pair up nearly identical hardware to improve performance, EMA allows developers to utilize any and all graphics resources as they see fit. No longer are developers confined to the whims of driver teams and homogeneous hardware; EMA now let’s them do crazy things like rendering a game using both AMD and Nvidia GPUs.The game has been the showcase for all the wonders that are possible in DirectX 12. Last year I used an older preview to test how insanely DirectX 12 will scale with multicore CPUs.This time, Ashes is back with its Beta II build that enables Explicit Multi-GPU with the simple click of a checkbox. DirectX 12 is promising blistering new levels of efficiency and performance, and AMD’s partnership with Oxide Games aims to raise that bar even higher. The result is a series of AMD exclusive features making their introduction in Ashes of the Singularity.

Asynchronous Compute: DirectX 12 Async Shaders supercharge work completion in a compatible AMD Radeon GPU by interleaving tasks across multiple threads to shorten overall render time. Async Shaders are materially important to a PC gamer’s experience because shorter rendering times reduce graphics pipeline latency, and lower latency equals greater performance. “Performance” can mean higher framerates in gameplay and better responsiveness in VR environments. In DirectX 11 only one shader could run at a time, this means that while a memory-dominant shader was running, the math units would be sitting idle. Ashes of the Singularity is able to use DirectX 12 to schedule nearly all of its compute tasks, which can account for nearly a third of the frame time, to run in parallel with other rendering tasks. This compute work always has to be done, but by allowing them to run in parallel the GPU can now schedule complementary tasks to achieve nearly full utilization of the GPU.

Multi-threaded Command Buffer Recording: With DirectX 12 offering greater support for multi-GPU setups. Ashes of the Singularity benchmark 2.0 allows for full-scale multi-GPU testing. It is important to remember that the CPU and the GPU communicate through the DirectX API. However, DirectX 11 is an API form 2008. Nowadays the GPUs are so fast that a CPU using DirectX 11 can’t feed it fast enough. Although CPUs often have 4/8 cores, for technical reasons DirectX 11 games could only have 1 core to feed the GPU. As if in a highway we only use one lane. During a frame, the GPU would run out of work and would sit idle. DirectX 12 allows all CPU cores to feed the GPU, this GPU food is called ‘command buffers’ i.e. eight cores feeding your GPU better than one.

Ashes of the Singularity and its new beta and benchmarking tool fully support explicit multi-GPU, or the ability to combine graphics cards from different vendors (AMD and Nvidia) in a single machine. As the game is heavily multithreaded, Stardock recommends testing with a quad-core CPU at a minimum, and at least 16GB of RAM. Ashes of the Singularity Beta 2 is available now for $49.99 on GOG and Steam. Benchmark 2.0 is included as part of the package, run from within the game itself. The full release of Ashes of the Singularity is expected later this year.

Colossal Railway Connect China To America Trough Russia

Back in 2014, China has announced an ambitious engineering plan to build a bullet train railway to America trough Russia. This plan might seem ridiculous to virtually everyone, but if Beijing gets its way that’s exactly what will be possible in the future. The idea is to drive a railway route from Beijing to America via Russia, running under the Bering Strait to Alaska, Canada and America.

The proposed line would begin in north-east China and run up through Siberia, pass through a tunnel underneath the Pacific Ocean then cut through Alaska and Canada to reach the continental US. According to a report in the Beijing Times, the country is considering building a new high-speed railway that would ultimately connect it with the lower 48 states of the United States. Specifically, the route currently under consideration would begin in northeastern China and run through Siberia to the Bering Strait. At this point, there would be an underground tunnel that cuts through the Pacific Ocean to connect Russia and Alaska, from which the train would continue south through Canada until arriving again in the United States.

The mega railway network, called “China-Russia-Canada-America,” would run for 13,000km, about 3,000km further than the Trans-Siberian Railway, including a 200km (125-mil)e undersea tunnel across the Bering Strait from Russia to Alaska. The entire trip would take two days, with the train travelling at an average of 350km/h (220mph), as the international date line splits the islands, which are known as Tomorrow Island and Yesterday Isle.

The most massive part of the project would, of course, involve constructing the undersea tunnel that would make traveling across the Bering Strait possible. At 200km (125 miles) long, the tunnel would represent a daunting engineering challenge but China Daily stated the technology is “already in place” and will be used in a separate high-speed rail project.  Additionally, China Daily “the project will be funded and constructed by China,” though the details have yet to be ironed out. Wang Mengshu, a railway expert at the Chinese Academy of Engineering, as saying, “Right now we’re already in discussions. Russia has already been thinking about this for many years.”

According to the Beijing Times, the China-US railway is just one of four ambitious projects currently in the works. The first is a line that would run from London via Paris, Berlin, Warsaw, Kiev and Moscow, where it would split into two routes, one of which would run to China through Kazakhstan and the other through eastern Siberia. The second line would begin in the far-western Chinese city of Urumqi and then run through Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Turkey to Germany. The third would begin in the south-western city of Kunming and end in Singapore.

Aside from financial challenges, many are skeptical of whether the engineering required to build such a massive network is feasible. Although a 200km tunnel is probably feasible in theory, the cost versus the potential return would surely make it one of the world’s most spectacular follies. It would be the world’s longest undersea tunnel – four times the length of the Channel Tunnel connecting the United Kingdom and France.

Astronomers Discover The Largest Structure In The Universe

A group of astronomers from Hungary and Maerics led by Prof Lajos Balazs, have found what may be the largest feature in the known universe: a giant ring of nine galaxies 7 billion light years away and 5 billion light years wide. For a comparison, that’s about 50,000 times bigger than the Milky Way, or more than one-ninth the size of the observable universe.

The ring was revealed by nine Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) originating from the nine galaxies. Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest objects in the universe, releasing as much energy in a few seconds as the sun does over its 10 billion year lifetime. They are supposed to be the outcome of massive stars collapsing into giant black holes. Their enormous glow helps astronomers to mark the position of distant galaxies, something the team exploited. The GRBs that make up the newly discovered ring were observed using a variety of space- and ground-based observatories.

A GRB is an intense flash of gamma rays caused by a supernova, the dramatic death of a fiery star, and thus their detection indicates the presence of a galaxy. Aside from their spectacular deaths, they also help astronomers to measure the distance of other galaxies. They appear to be at very similar distances from us – around 7 billion light years in a circle more than 70 times the diameter of the full Moon, researchers said.

They seem to be at much related distances from us – around 7 billion light years – in a ring 36° across on the sky, or more than at least 70 times the diameter of the Full Moon. This suggests that this circle is more than 5 billion light years across, and according to Prof Balazs there is merely a 1 in 20,000 chance of the GRBs being in this spreading by chance. In this case, the observed GRB’s indicate that the nine galaxies are positioned in a ring shaped like a shell.

While it is not one physical whole structure, the Hungarian-American team who made the discovery think the nine galaxies are gravitationally bound to each other – just as our Local Group contains the Milky Way and a few dozen other galaxies. All the GRBs studied by a variety of observatories are about 7 billion light-years away from Earth, suggesting that we are seeing the structure “face on.” Alternatively, we may be seeing a projection of a “sphere.” But there’s one problem, the structure, if confirmed, would break our current models of how large things can be; a previous theoretical limit stood at 1.2 billion light-years. On large scales, the cosmos should be uniform and not have structures like this.

A spheroidal ring projection would reflect the strings of clusters of galaxies observed to border voids in the cosmos; voids and string-like creations are seen and projected by several models of the cosmos. The recently discovered ring is nonetheless at least ten times bigger than known voids. Prof Balazs says “If we are right, this structure contradicts the current models of the universe. It was a huge surprise to find something this big—and we still don’t quite understand how it came to exist at all.”

The team now wants to find out more about the ring, and establish whether the known processes for galaxy formation and large scale structure could have led to its creation, or if astronomers need to radically revise their theories of the evolution of the cosmos. The research was published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.